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Resveratrol

7,75 €

  •   strong antioxidant
  •   improves circulation in the brain
  •   neuro-protective properties

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Resveratrol ((E)-3,5,4'-trihydroksystilben) is a naturally occurring compound from the polyphenol group. It has been the object of great interest for the past 10 years due to its high therapeutic potential- especially in cases of cardiovascular disease, viral infections, cancers, and neuro-degenerative processes.10,4 Being found in grape skins, resveratrol makes its way into red wine; thus being considered the secret to a long life for the French. The extract is taken from the rich in Resveratrol plant- Poygonum cuspidatum- or Japanese Knotweed.

Free radicals and neuroprotective effects 

Resveratrol has strong antioxidant characteristics- combats oxidative stress by eleminating free radicals (reactive forms of oxygen). Oxidative stress can lead to many neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's, Parkinson's, Wilson's, or Alzheimer's).5 That is why it is extremely important to supply the human body with antioxidants. Polyphenols, such as Resveratrol, have a higher reduction potential than vitamin C (ascorbic acid).2

Improves circulation in the brain 

Randomized, double-blind studies have shown that resveratrol significantly increased blood flow in the brain- the strength of the effect was dose-dependent (250mg, 500mg, and a placebo were used in these studies).7

Anti-inflammatory effects

Inflammation in the nerve cells is an important contributor to the onset of neurological diseases.14 Overactivity of inflammatory markers (microglia) can lead to irreversible damage to the nerve cells. Resveratrol acts as a neuroprotectant by inhibiting microglia.14

Cardiovascular system

Resveratrol enhances the synthesis of nitric oxide, inhibiting platelet aggregation and lowering LDL cholesterol; thus having a protective effect on the cardiovascular system.8 Studies with animals have shown that resveratrol protects the heart from ischemia-reperfusions, lowers blood pressure and reduced cardiac hypertrophy in animal hypertension, as well as slows down the development of atherosclerosis.9

Mechanism

Despite there being many well-documented health benefits of resveratrol, how it exactly works is still not fully understood. Resveratrol inhibits cAMP- dependent phosphodiesterase, generating a cascade of processes that ultimately modulate the activity of AMPK, SIRT1, PGC-1α.11

Interesting facts

Resveratrol has chemopreventive features- helps in preventing various types of cancer (i.e. skin cancer), activates deacetylase sirtuins and extends the life of lower organisms.1 Resveratrol effectively combats various viral infections such as herpesviridae- especially herpes simplex virus HSV – 1, HSV -2 labial (face, mouth) and genitals (Herpes simplex virus), Varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus HCMV (human cytomegalovirus), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); retro viruses such as HIV-1 and HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, human T-cell lymphotrophic virus-1), polyomavirus; Influenza A virus (Influenza A).3

Additional information

Resveratrol is poorly soluble in water, sensitive to light and high temperature.10
The biological activity of resveratrol may be limited by poor absorption or rapid metabolism, it seems its methylated analogs are more pharmacologically effective such as. Pterostilbene [3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-trans-stilbene].6

Bibliography

1. Baur, J. A., & Sinclair, D. A. (2006). Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence. Nature reviews. Drug discovery, 5(6), 493-506.
2. Bradamante, S., Barenghi, L., & Villa, A. (2004). Cardiovascular protective effects of resveratrol. Cardiovascular drug reviews, 22(3), 169-188.
3. Campagna, M., & Rivas, C. (2010). Antiviral activity of resveratrol. Biochemical Society transactions, 38(Pt 1), 50-53.
4. Delmas, D., Aires, V., Limagne, E., Dutartre, P., Mazué, F., Ghiringhelli, F., & Latruffe, N. (2011). Transport, stability, and biological activity of resveratrol. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1215(1), 48-59.
5. Federico, A., Cardaioli, E., Da Pozzo, P., Formichi, P., Gallus, G. N., & Radi, E. (2012). Mitochondria, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 322(1-2), 254-262.
6. Kapetanovic, I. M., Muzzio, M., Huang, Z., Thompson, T. N., & McCormick, D. L. (2011). Pharmacokinetics, oral bioavailability, and metabolic profile of resveratrol and its dimethylether analog, pterostilbene, in rats. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 68(3), 593-601.
7. Kennedy, D. O., Wightman, E. L., Reay, J. L., Lietz, G., Okello, E. J., Wilde, A., & Haskell, C. F. (2010). Effects of resveratrol on cerebral blood flow variables and cognitive performance in humans: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(6), 1590-1597.
8. Kosmeder, J. W., & Pezzuto, J. M., with Bhat KPL. (2001). Biological effects of resveratrol. Antioxidants & redox signaling, 3(6), 1041-1064.
9. Li, H., Xia, N., & Förstermann, U. (2012). Cardiovascular effects and molecular targets of resveratrol. Nitric oxide : biology and chemistry / official journal of the Nitric Oxide Society, 26(2), 102-10.
10. Santos, A. C., Veiga, F., & Ribeiro, A. J. (2011). New delivery systems to improve the bioavailability of resveratrol. Expert opinion on drug delivery, 8(8), 973-990.
11. Tennen, R. I., Michishita-Kioi, E., & Chua, K. F. (2012). Finding a target for resveratrol. Cell.
12. Vang, O., Ahmad, N., Baile, C. A., Baur, J. A., Brown, K., Csiszar, A., Das, D. K., et al. (2011). What is new for an old molecule? systematic review and recommendations on the use of resveratrol. PLoS ONE.
13. Vingtdeux, V., Dreses-Werringloer, U., Zhao, H., Davies, P., & Marambaud, P. (2008). Therapeutic potential of resveratrol in Alzheimerʼs disease. BMC neuroscience, 9 Suppl 2, S6.
14. Zhang, F., Liu, J., & Shi, J. S. (2010). Anti-inflammatory activities of resveratrol in the brain: Role of resveratrol in microglial activation. European Journal of Pharmacology.

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Resveratrol

Resveratrol

  •   strong antioxidant
  •   improves circulation in the brain
  •   neuro-protective properties

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