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Ginkgo extract 50:1 View larger

Ginkgo Biloba extract 50:1

7,50 €

  •   has neuro-protective properties
  •   has anti-depressant and pro-cognitive effects
  •   improves blood circulation in the brain

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Ginkgo biloba is a living fossil, whose direct ancestor formed on Earth over 200 million years ago in a form that is still around today in many Polish parks, as well as thousands of kilometers from South-east China where it was endemic. The natural characteristics of Gingko have been used in traditional Chinese medicine from ancient times, and its extract are some of the most popular diet supplements. 

The main resourcee used for producing extracts are the leaves, which contain large amounts of tarpenoids, such as bilobalide and ginkgolides, which are considered to be the main biologically active ingredients of the extract. Moreover, the leaves are rich in flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, rutin), as well as organic acids and polipropenole. A standardized extract obtained from dried leaves of ginkgo contains 24% glycosides flavonoids and at least 6% terpene lactones. 1 g of this extract is equivalent to 50 g of leaves.1

Has neuro-protective effects 

Ginkoglide B contained in the extract of Ginkgo biloba acts as an inhibitor of the platelet activating factor receptor, which reduces the risk of blood clots occuring in blood vessels. PAF, despite the fact that it increases presynaptic excretion of glutamine and has a positive effect on long-term synaptic strengthening, which plays a fundamental role in the processes of learning and memory, may also intensify the effects of nerve tissue damage after a stroke. That is why the antagonist effect of ginkoglide B on PAF produces a neuro-protective effect while kaempferol has a protective effect against neurotoxicity caused by an excess of NMDA receptor activity of glutamine binding.2–5 Additionally, it was shown that the compounds in ginkgo increase the expression of transthyretin- a protein capable of binding β-amyloid, which in turn is responsible for Alzheimer's disease.4

Has anti-depressant and pro-cognitive effects

Despite the fact that a meta-analysis of scientific articles has shown that Gingko biloba extract does not have a significant influence on executive functions, memory and attention in adults; many individual reports have demonstrated a wide range of effects from substances contained in Ginkgo.5–9 One study has proven that sub-chronic usage of the extract increases dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex, which is considered to be the center for our superego and is responsible for complex cognitive and intellectual functions, especially working memory and executive functions (decision-making, planning, organization, learning from mistakes, goal-realization).8,9 Additionally, it has been shown that Gingko biloba reduces AChE activity in the hippocampus, which suggests a possible influence on long-term memory.10 It was also shown that Gingko extract can block the effects of can block the action of monoamine oxidase, which may be the basis for its anxiolytic and anti-depressant effets.7

Dosage

120 to 160 mg per day, preferably three times a day of 40 mg with meals.11

Synergy

Phosphatidylserine intensifies the effects of the standardized extract on cognitive functions.12

Interaction

• Gingko extract in combination with fluoxetine (Prozac), St. John's Wort and other herbs can cause nervousness and agitation.11

• Anticoagulants, aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen - combined with Gingko extract may increase the risk of bruising and bleeding.11

• Ginkgo extract may reduce the effect of alprazolam and anticonvulsants.11

• Ginkgo extract may affect the rate of metabolism of some drugs by liver enzymes. Contact your doctor if you are taking the following medicines: clozapine, fluvoksamin, haloperidol, imipramine, olanzapine, propranolol, theophylline, zileuton, zolmitriptan, amitriptyline, citalopram, diazepam, lansoprazole, omeprazole, warfarin, selekoksib, diclofenac, amitriptyline, codeine, donepezil, fentanyl, meperidine, methadone, metoprolol, tramadol, cyclosporine, estogeny, insulin and other.11

• Do not take Ginkgo extract with drugs that may increase the risk of seizures, such as anaesthetics, antijak anestetyki, antiarrhythmic drugs, antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporin), antidepressants, antihistamines, immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), drugs, stimulants (methylphenidate), theophylline, and others.11

Side effects

Ginkgo extract is considered safe; however, some minor side effects may occur- such as abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, constipation, heart palpitations, and allergic skin reactions. Additionally, it should be taken into account that Ginkgo dilutes the blood and reduce its ability to form blood clots, that is why there are concerns that the extract may increase the risk of bruising and bleeding to occur. A few individuals have experienced bleeding in the eye and brain, as well as an excessive bleeding during surgery.11

Gingko is most likely not safe for pregnant women as it may increase the amount of bleeding while giving birth. The extract has also not been sufficiently studied on breast-feeding women.11

 

Bibliography

1. Blumenthal, M. in The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs (eds. Goldberg, A., Kunz, T. & Dinda, K.) 185–200 (American Botanical Council, (2003).
2. Bazan, N. G., Tu, B. & Rodriguez de Turco, E. B. What synaptic lipid signaling tells us about seizure-induced damage and epileptogenesis. Prog. Brain Res. 135, 175–185 (2002).
Lindsberg, P. J., Hallenbeck, J. M. & Feuerstein, G. Platelet-activating factor in stroke and brain injury. Ann. Neurol. 30, 117–129 (1991).
3. Watanabe, C. M. et al. The in vivo neuromodulatory effects of the herbal medicine ginkgo biloba. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98, 6577–6580 (2001).
4. Sloley, B. D. et al. Identification of kaempferol as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and potential Neuroprotectant in extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 52, 451–459 (2000).
5. Laws, K. R., Sweetnam, H. & Kondel, T. K. Is Ginkgo biloba a cognitive enhancer in healthy individuals? A meta-analysis. Hum. Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 27, 527–33 (2012).
6. White, H. L., Scates, P. W. & Cooper, B. R. Extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves inhibit monoamine oxidase. Life Sci. 58, 1315–1321 (1996).
7. Yoshitake, T., Yoshitake, S. & Kehr, J. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(R) and its main constituent flavonoids and ginkgolides increase extracellular dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex. Br. J. Pharmacol. 159, 659–668 (2010).
8. Kehr, J. et al. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb 761®) and its specific acylated flavonol constituents increase dopamine and acetylcholine levels in the rat medial prefrontal cortex: possible implications for the cognitive enhancing properties of EGb 761®. Int. Psychogeriatrics 24, S25–S34 (2012).
9. Das, A. et al. A comparative study in rodents of standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera and Ginkgo biloba - Anticholinesterase and cognitive enhancing activities. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 73, 893–900 (2002).
10. WebMD. Gingko. at <http://www.webmd.com/>
11. Kennedy, D. O., Haskell, C. F., Mauri, P. L. & Scholey, a. B. Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 22, 199–210 (2007).

 

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Ginkgo Biloba extract 50:1

Ginkgo Biloba extract 50:1

  •   has neuro-protective properties
  •   has anti-depressant and pro-cognitive effects
  •   improves blood circulation in the brain

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